Safety and security, under the objects of the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 (EP&A Act 1979)will be considered through Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED). CPTED is a strategy that aims to reduce crime through better design, construction and management of the built environment.  Applying CPTED methods, aims to discourage offenders by maximising the risk and effort of committing a crime, while minimising the benefits and opportunities of committing that crime. CPTED also identifies ways to create a feeling of safety and security. Key principles when applying CPTED, include: surveillance, access control, territorial reinforcement and space management.

This design approach considers the following aspects:

  • Whether the CPTED assessment report meets this section's requirements and minimum standards.
  • The validity of data and research presented.
  • Whether crime risks have been adequately identified and analysed.
  • Whether the recommended CPTED treatments, mitigations and management are appropriate.
  • Whether the development supports positive community safety and security outcomes.

This section applies to all development.

  • Development applications may be referred to the NSW Police for referral comments
  • Crime Prevention and the Assessment of Development Applications: Guidelines published by NSW Department of Urban Affairs and Planning, 2001 (or as updated or amended)

Utilise CPTED methods to prevent crime through building and place design, influencing construction and management to:

  1. Increase the perception of risk to criminals by increasing the possibility of detection, challenge and capture.
  2. Increase the effort required to commit crime by increasing the time, energy or resources which need to be expended.
  3. Reduce the potential rewards of crime by minimising, removing or concealing ‘crime benefits’.
  4. Remove conditions that create confusion about required norms of behaviour.
  5. Identify crime risks of a development, and the appropriate level of CPTED treatments to remove or, at a minimum, minimise or mitigate risk of crime.

A word or expression has the same meaning as it has in Newcastle Local Environmental Plan 2012 (LEP 2012), unless otherwise defined. Other words and expressions include:

  • Licensed premises – means premises licensed under the Liquor Act 2007. 

  • Plan of management – is a document that provides a framework for the management of a particular issue, impact, activity, event, development or the like.

Development category

Application requirements

Explanatory notes

Developments that:

  1. Create a risk of crime (actual and perceived)
  2. Involve an increased threat to public safety
  3. Include a component to serve, sell or supply alcohol.

Submit a CPTED assessment report by a suitably qualified person who has completed training in crime prevention, crime risk evaluation and CPTED techniques. The CPTED assessment report must detail the training and currency of the person responsible for the preparation of the report. See Table C7.01.

A CPTED assessment report is a systematic evaluation of the potential for crime in an area. It provides an indication of both the magnitude of crime and likelihood of crime. The consideration of these elements will determine the choice, scale and appropriate CPTED treatments to remove, minimise or mitigate crime risk.

Types of development that may involve the preparation of a CPTED assessment report include, but are not limited to:

  1. Dwellings and accommodation:
      • any form of residential development with 20 or more dwellings on the site
      • boarding houses, co-living, group homes and hostels of any size or capacity
      • manufactured home estates, caravan parks and camping grounds of any size or capacity.
b. Social infrastructure:
      • education establishments
      • centre-based childcare facilities
      • community facilities
      • recreation (areas and facilities of any size or capacity)
      • entertainment facilities and function centres can hold 1,000 or more people
      • hospital
      • correction Institution
      • public transport Infrastructure.
c. Commercial and industrial
      • new commercial and specialised retail premises with an estimated cost of development of $5 million or more
      • food and drink premises and shops trading between 12:00am and 5:00am
      • service stations and highway service centres of any size or capacity
      • new licensed premises (cellar doors, hotels, registered clubs, pubs, small bars, packaged liquor outlets) of any size or capacity
      • extension of licensed premises trading hours past 12:00am.
d. Other development
      • health service facilities
      • car parks of any size or capacity
      • restricted premises and sex services premises of any size or capacity
      • temporary events with an expected attendance of 5,000 or more people
      • amusement centres of any size or capacity.

CN will exercise its discretion, under the EP&A Act 1979, in respect to the requirement for a crime risk assessment.

Development, including change of use applications, considering applying for a liquor licence. 

Submit a plan of management (PoM) prepared by a suitably qualified person. 

The PoM is to be prepared following the NSW government guidelines, found on the Liquor & Gaming NSW website

A PoM guides you and your staff on actions that will be taken to ensure compliance with your obligations under the liquor laws and liquor licence.

The PoM is a key management tool for those with a liquor licence which should be regularly referenced by the premises (and updated when necessary) to ensure the premises operates in a way without causing unreasonable health/safety risks or impacts to the local amenity.



Describe the proposed development.

Site context

Describe the site locality, patterns of use, those that may be affected, and its physical surrounds.

Indicate if a site visit has been undertaken and when.

CPTED Assessment 

Describe the methodology for assessment.

Identify existing and possible crime risks (actual and perceived), plus their likelihood and magnitude (risk matrix) and who may be affected.

Analyse the types of crime prevalent in the locality, and to which the development may contribute.

Evaluate likelihood and magnitude of each potential crime risk (without treatment) by giving a rating.  Provide evidence to support rating

Identify data collection and consultation, including with police.

CPTED treatments

Describe appropriate and justified treatments applied to the development to remove, minimise or mitigate crime risks and enhancement opportunities.

Indicate predicted likelihood and magnitude of each potential crime risk (with treatment).

Treatments should be targeted and proportionate to scale of likelihood and magnitude of crime risks as well as the development scale.

Specific uses

Where applicable, outline how the report addresses any of the following development specific uses:

  • Automatic Teller Machines (ATMs)
  • service stations trading between 12:00am and 5:00am
  • night-time economy areas
  • public toilets
  • skate park facilities
  • car parks
  • public transport infrastructure 
  • proximity to laneways and vacant spaces/properties

Manage crime risks

PoM to identify the CPTED treatments to be implemented and their management over the life of the development.

Where requested by police, council or at the applicants discretion, outline targets and actions for monitoring and reviewing progress of treatments to address crime risks.

 Table C7.01: Information to be included in a CPTED assessment report


  1. Reduce community vulnerability to crime through good urban design and the incorporation of CPTED principles in development.
  2. Consider safety and security at the early design stages and plan development to create a safe environment, responsive to its surrounding that incorporates features to minimise opportunities for criminal and anti-social behaviour.
  3. Provide actual and perceived safe and secure environments by minimising opportunities for criminal and anti-social behaviour.

Controls (C)

Acceptable solutions (AS)

Explanatory notes

C-1. All CPTED principles are incorporated into the design of the proposed development.


Development Applications may be referred to the NSW Police.



C-2. A PoM for premises applying for, or altering a liquor licence, must be provided.


C-3. The design and layout of the development:

    1. are integrated into the wider public realm enhancing the potential for natural surveillance, access control, territorial reinforcement and space management
    2. reduce temptations for vandalism and graffiti without detracting from the façade
    3. minimise or prevents opportunities for crime and risks to public safety while maintaining neighbourhood amenity and the character of the streetscape
    4. encourage active street environments as they enhance public safety
    5. provide unimpeded sight lines, particularly along pedestrian pathways
    6. improve natural surveillance through increased legitimate use of spaces
    7. minimise blind-corners, recesses and other external areas that have the potential for concealment or entrapment.


AS-1. Place street furniture, ATMs and public toilets in high activity areas.

C-4. Development incorporates appropriate standards of lighting to improve visibility, safety and security and deter illegitimate activity for areas that will be used and unused at night.


AS-1. Effective, vandal resistant lighting in public spaces that does not produce glare or dark shadows.

AS-2. Well lit entrances, exits, service areas, pathways and car parks, particularly in situations where they are likely to be used after dark.

AS-3. Use wide beam lighting illumination which reaches to the beam of the next light, or the perimeter of the site or area being traversed.

AS-4. Direct lighting towards access routes to illuminate potential offenders, rather than towards buildings or resident observation points, avoiding light spillage onto neighbouring properties.

C-5. Optimise casual surveillance of loading areas.

AS-1. Provide side and rear openings from adjacent buildings overlooking service areas and clear sight lines.

AS-2. Provide adequate day and night lighting to reduce the risk of undesirable activity.

C-6. Buildings are designed to allow casual surveillance of the street           .

AS-1. Maximise any glazed shop front on the ground level so views in and out of the shop can be achieved.

AS-2. Provide openings of an adequate size in the upper levels to maximise opportunities for surveillance.

AS-3. Locate high use rooms to have views to the street to maximise casual surveillance.

AS-4. Clearly display the street number on the front of the building in pedestrian view.

AS-5. Ensure any shop fronts are not obscured by planting, signage, awnings, and roller shutters.

C-7. Entrances to buildings from public streets are designed to enable clear residential and commercial access to the property, which is clearly identifiable, defined, lit and visible.


AS-1. The residential component of a shop top housing development has a separate secure pedestrian entrance from the commercial component of the development.

AS-2. Use walkways, lighting, signage and landscaping to clearly guide people and vehicles to and from entrances.

AS-3. Pavement surfaces and signage will direct pedestrian movements.

AS-4. Potential conflict between pedestrians and vehicles is avoided.

AS-5. There are clear transitions and boundaries between public and private space. Paving, tactile surfaces, fencing, verges and gardens can be used as transition cues.

AS-6. Visible and well maintained security signage is provided at all entrances.

AS-7. Clear and legible location markers, directional signage and residential house numbers are visible to assist people to navigate the environment and define appropriate use of spaces.

AS-8. Design features encourage people to gather in public or shared spaces.

AS-9. Staff (for example: concierges, onsite management, security) are positioned in a location that can be clearly seen from communal or public spaces.

C-8. Reduce the opportunity for, and impact of vandalism and graffiti through design.

AS-1. Use treatments on fencing and walls that reduce the opportunity for vandalism and graffiti (for example: creeping vegetation/green screens, anti-graffiti coatings, modulated walls).

AS-2. Use vandal resistant external lighting fixtures.

AS-3. Use hard-wearing materials for street furniture and design features in public space, ensuring items are secured by sturdy anchor points or removed after hours.

AS-4. Implement PoM that include the routine maintenance and cleaning of property.


C-9. Ensure landscaping does not provide opportunities for concealment or ways to access private property, but does promote opportunities for natural surveillance.


AS-1. Avoid blind or dark corners in pathways, stairwells, hallways and car parks. Where blind corners can’t be avoided, surveillance should be enhanced by the installation of vandal resistant mirrors.

AS-2. Ensure design features of buildings or nearby trees don’t facilitate ‘natural ladders’ that allow climbing onto balconies, rooftops and window ledges.

AS-3. Avoid medium height vegetation with concentrated top to bottom foliage. Plants such as low hedges and shrubs, creepers, ground covers or high canopied vegetation are good for natural surveillance. Trees with dense low growth foliage should be spaced or have the crown raised to avoid a continuous barrier.

AS-4. Avoid vegetation and fencing that inhibits surveillance of building entrances, shared spaces, access routes and pedestrian pathways.